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anatomy and physiology

anatomy and physiology  Lets find out about Pitressin or ADH.Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin helps to manage fluid volume.ADH is secreted by the posterior portion of the pituitary body.The pituitary is split into anterior and posterior portions.ADH is secreted in response to a rise in blood solute concentration.     Blood solute concentration is sensed by osmoreceptors within the hypothalamus.ADH is additionally secreted in response to a decrease in fluid volume.ADH may be a hormone that travels within the blood to the kidneys. ADH promotes fluid retention by the kidneys. ADH has an impact on the distal convolutedtubule and collecting duct of the nephron. Lets take a better look.ADH makes the distal convoluted tubule more permeable to water.ADH promotes the looks of water channels called aquaporins. Water moves out of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct toward the upper soluteconcentration within the interstitium. Water moves into the blood increasing bloodvolume and d

Cell Transport for Anatomy and Physiology

Lets learn about cellular transport mechanisms.Many substances move in and out of cells. In order to get substances into or out ofthe cell they must get through the cell membrane. Lets take a closer look at the cell membrane.The cell membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer.Phospholipids consists of a phosphate head that loves water (hydrophyllic) and a lipidtail that hates water hydrophobic.  The phospholipids arrange themselves intoa bilayer with the head pointing outward and the tails pointing inward.Lipid soluble substances can pass through the phospholipid bilayer.Some examples of lipid soluble substances include oxygen and carbon dioxide. Steroidsare another example. We can say these substances move by diffusion.In diffusion substances move from higher to lower concentration until reaching equilibrium.Here is an example of diffusion.  A drop of dye in water will move from wherethere is more dye (an area of higher concentration) to where there is less dye (area of lowerconcentr

Immune System: Innate Immunity

      innate immunity         Let's learn about innate immunity. Our bodies have a number of ways to fightoff pathogens. One category of defense is called innate immunityor non-specific defense. In innate immunity the same kind of defenseis used against all types of pathogens.  Three types of innate immunity are mechanicalbarriers, cells and chemical mediators. Let's take a closer look at mechanical barriers. The keratonized or hardened cells of the skinform a natural barrier against pathogens. The mouth is also a barrier and is lined withmucous containing lysozymes that work to destroy pathogens. The stomach contains hydrochloric acid thatdestroys pathogens. Next we'll look at how cells form a line ofdefense against pathogens.  Some cells engulf pathogens. This is called phagocytosis. The cell engulfs the pathogen and then enzymeswithin the cell work to destroy it. Inflammation is another form of innate immunity. Signs of inflammation include heat, redness,swelling and pai

How to do antibody mediated immunity_How to do antibody mediated immunity2020

    antibody mediated immunity Hi, WelcOmE to Back mY Blog Article. Let's learn about adaptive immunity. The human body has a number of ways to fightoff nasty pathogens. There are 2 types of adaptive or specificimmunity.       How to do antibody mediated immunity .    Cell mediated and antibody mediated. This Article covers antibody mediated immunity. B lymphocytes or B cells are involved in antibodymediated or humoral immunity. B-cells are activated by co-stimulation whichinvolves a connection between an antigen receptor on the B-cell and an antigen from a pathogen.  Here, an antigen from a pathogen is displayedon a macrophage which acts as an antigen presenting cell. Along with the antigen antigen-receptor connection,substances called cytokines are secreted by the macrophage which also help to activatethe B-cell.  Activated B-cells secrete antibodies. Activated B-cells are called plasma cells. Here is an antibody. Antibodies contain constant and variable portions. The variable po

How to structure antibodies

Hi there and welcome to a short Article antibody structure and function.             antibodies So antibodies are protein basedand it's immunoglobulin. So we often use this Ig and it's kind ofa shorthand for antibodies.  And the base structure is a Y-shaped structure onthere you have what's called variable regions and those are out on the ends.And that kind of makes sense because that's where the binding is of theepitope.   And then you have kind of the the base structure which are theconstant regions.   So because we know antibodies are specific to specificantigens or specific epitopes. It's that V region, that variable region that'sgoing to be altered or not altered.   But that's where all the differences will be. So that when the antigen comes in, it'll be specific for whatever that bindingsite is on that V region that's there.  Okay so antibodies are just a proteinpiece. So they're secreted by B-cells and specifically by B plasma cells.  a